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The Second Generation of Reformers
Melanchthon, Calvin i druga generacija Protestantskih reformatora

Philipp (Schwarzerd) Melanchthon PDF Print E-mail

(Bretten, 16 February 1497 – Wittenberg, 19 April 1560)

German humanist, professor and theologian at the University of Wittenberg. The most significant follower of Luther and his unofficial heir. Because of his works, Melanchthon was also known as Praeceptor Germaniae (The Teacher of Germany). He wrote the Augsburg Confession (Confessio Augustana), which became the official statement of faith for the Lutheran Church and Loci Communes, the first compendium for systematic theology.
He was Flacius’ professor, friend and patron. After the Augsburg and Leipzig Interims, Flacius started to publicly criticize Melanchthon as they disagreed about what constitutes adiaphora (indifferent matters) in church life.

Johannes Brenz PDF Print E-mail

(Weil der Stadt, 24 June,1499 – Stuttgart, 11 September, 1570)

Johannes Brenz German Lutheran theologian and Swabian Reformer. He was a pastor at Schwäbisch Hall and later provost of Stuttgart Cathedral. His Württemberg Catechism and Postille (Konzul and Dalmatin, 1568) were translated into Croatian and Slovenian. He was supportive of the Slavic printing press in Urach. Brenz was an advisor in theological matters to Duke Christopher and as such attended many meetings, including the Council of Trent.

Heinrich Bullinger PDF Print E-mail

Heinrich Bullinger(18 July 1504 – 17 September 1575)

Theologian. Zwingli’s successor in Zurich as pastor of the Grossmünster Church. The main author of the Confessio Helvetica. The second version of the Helvetic Confession was later adopted by many Reformed churches throughout Europe.
Bullinger and Matthias Flacius held theologically differing positions, especially concerning the Lord’s Supper, but the two never had any direct contact with each other. Bullinger kept an active correspondence with many influential politicians and theologians of his day, including Primus Truber and Pietro Paolo Vergerio, Protestant Reformers from Slovenia.

Bullinger and Flacius
Bullinger and Matthias Flacius never exchanged letters but nevertheless knew of each other’s writings and moves. They were on opposing theological sides, especially concerning the Lord’s Supper, and saw one another as a threat to their own doctrinal positions. Bullinger closely followed the developments concerning the internal struggles within Lutheranism between Flacius and his followers (referred to as orthodox Lutherans or Gnesio-[true] Lutherans) and those loyal to Melanchthon.
In 1561 Flacius was exiled from Jena University because of his teaching concerning original sin and became a refugee in Germany.

John (Jean) Calvin PDF Print E-mail

(Noyon, France, 10 July 1509 – Geneva, 27 May 1564)

Jean CalvinReformed theologian, founder of Calvinism. He worked in Geneva most of his life. In the sixteenth century Calvin’s theology spread from Switzerland to France, Scotland, Germany, Poland, Hungary and northern Croatia.
Calvin’s Magnum Opus is his Institutes of the Christian Religion, which went through a number of editions and became a standard work in the area of systematic theology. Calvin’s involvement in the burning at the stake of anti-Trinitarian Michael Servetus in Geneva in 1553 casts a shadow on his legacy.

Calvin and Flacius

Calvin and Flacius never met each other in person. Even though Flacius disagreed with Calvin theologically, he asked for Calvin’s opinion and advice on the publishing plan for his monumental work, The Magdeburg Centuries. He did this via Caspar von Nydbruck (1523-57), who was the adviser and librarian in the court of Maximillian II in Vienna and was sympathetic to Protestantism, keeping contact with representatives of its various branches in Germany and Switzerland. Calvin’s reply arrived too late (in 1557) when the texts for the first three centuries had already been completed.